Emerging from the world of cryptography in the mid 2000s.

Associated with the process of converting ordinary plain text into unintelligible text and vice-versa. Both the sender and receiver share a single key. The sender uses this key to encrypt plaintext and send the cipher text to the receiver.

Cryptography is a method of protecting information and communications through the use of codes so that only those for whom the information is intended can read and process it. The pre-fix “crypt” means hidden or vault and the suffix “graphy” stands for writing.

Modern cryptography uses sophisticated mathematical equations (algorithms) and secret keys to encrypt and decrypt data.

Today, cryptography is use to provide secrecy and integrity to our data, and both authentication and anonymity to our communications.

Cryptography or cryptology is the practice and study of techniques for secure.


To give public approval and praise. “She was universally/widely/publicly acclaimed for her contribution to the discovery”.

A piece of writing submitted for publication in a jounal, book, article, story, item, chapter, paper essay.

Or a gift or payment to a common fund or collection, donation, gift, present, donative. Something that you contribute or to do help produce or achieve something together with other.

If you make a contribution to something, you do something to help make it successful. “The thing contributed his USD 100 contribution to the cancer research fund”. A gift or payment to a common fund or collection.

MS175 present tense

Unit 1 : ms 175 PRESENT TENSE. Study the form of verbs in the table and main focus present tense.

Simple English part 3, present tense instruction.

Present simple is be, to the present participle is being, for past simple’s was or were and past participle is been. (

Present Simple be sentences:
a) You seem to be an honest man.
b) Be careful about what you eat.
c) I’ll be back in a few minutes.
d) I might be a few minutes late.
e) It is clear what must be done.
f) When will the concert be held?
g) The rumor turned out to be true.
h) What time will dinner be served?
i) Don’t be afraid to ask questions.
j) I’m sure, I’ll be able to find it.


Because the ‘h’ is silent in honour or honor. Sometimes ‘an’ is used even if the ‘h’ is aspirated.

Of a sound – pronounced with an exhalation of breath. Or the sound represented in English by the letter “h” in words such as house.

Aspirated is past simple and past participle of aspirate. To pronounce (a vowel or a consonant) with aspiration.

To pronounce (a vowel or word) with the initial release of breath associated with English h, as in hurry.

To follow (a consonant, especially a stop consonant) with a puff of breath that is clearly audible before the next sound begins, as in English pit or kit.


It can also be used to mean ‘apart from that’ as in “Both players suffered bruising but were otherwise unhurt”.

Causing a bruise or bruises. An injury or mark where the skin has not been broken but is darker in colour, often as a result of being hit.

An injury transmitted through unbroken skin to underlying tissue causing rupture of small blood vessels and escape of blood into the tissue with resulting discoloration.

A bruise is an injury which appears as a purple mark on your body, although the skin is not broken. If you bruise a part of your body, a bruise appears on it.


Honour. regard with respect or/and warm approval. Or look at (something impressive or attractive) with pleasure.

Owesome, interesting, magnificent, admirable. If an object or achievement is impressive, you admire or respect it, usually because it is special.

Making or tending to make a marked impression. Having the power to excite attention, awe, or admiration an impressive display of skill. “Spectacular very impressive and exciting to look at or watch”.

Something that is impressive makes you admire it because it is very good, large and important. “The figures certainly look impressive”.

2. Accomplished, expert, skilled, skilful, or masterly.


“They all admired her courage”. If you admire someone or something, you like and respect them very much.

Bravery, braveness, courageousness, fearlessness, daring, “It takes courage to speak out against the tide of opinion”.

The ability to control your fear in a dangerous or difficult situation. Or to be brave and confident.

The quality of mind or spirit that enables a person to face difficulty, danger, pain, etc. Without fear, obsolete.

They do not have the courage to apologise for they actions”.

Courage is the quality shown by someone who decides to do something difficult or dangerous, even though they may be afraid. “He has impressed everyone with his authority and personal courage”.


For example: “This was an historic occasion”.

A particular event. Or the time at which it takes place. Happening, occurance, affair, case. The time of the something happened, or will happen.

A particular time, especially when something happens or has happened. A special or formal event.

Occasion is a special event or a specific time when something is possible or when something will happen,especially when something happens or has happened.

“We met on several occasions to discuss the issue, I’ve heard him be rude to her on a number of occasions.


(honor/honour) these spelling differences are reflected in the words, which are two variations of the same word. One is the American spelling, while the other is British.

Throw back (heat, light, sound) without absorbing it. “When the sun’s rays hit the Earth a lot of the heat is reflected back into space”.

Shine back, mirror return, “The snow reflects a great deal of light”.

2. Think deeply or carefully about. Consider, give consideration to, deliberate about, “He reflected on his responsibilities as a teacher.

If a surface reflects light, heat, sound or an image, it sends the light. Something that reflects comes back to you. If you look in a mirror, you will see your reflected image.


It’s shorthand for pound weight. The form “ib” is actually an abbreviation of the Latin word libra, which could mean a pound. Itself a shortened form of the full expression above.

Shorten. Make or become shorter. Synonys as abbreviate, reduce, shrink, decrease, diminish. “You can shorten your essay without losing its balance”.

To become shoter or to make something shorter. To make something shorter in length, or distance.

An abbreviation or short, is a shortened form of a word or phrase used mainly in writing to represent the complete form.

Shortenings are abbreviation in which the beginning or end of the word has been dropped.