The source sentence is “The volcano had already erupted once”.

Of a volcano become active and eject lava, Ash and gases. Synonym as explode. When a volcano erupts, it explodes and flames and rocks come out of it.

For examples: “since the volcano last erupted, many houses have been built in a dangerous position on its slopes”. Synonyms as flare up, flare, burst out.

For second meaning is break out suddenly and dramatically.

Sentence examples are ” fierce fighting erupted between the army and guerrillas”. And fighting erupted in the streets”.


Writers need to be very clear about who they are writing for, and must tailor their work accordingly.

Made to order, custom made, a person whose occupation is making fitted.

2. Make or adapt for a particular purpose or person. Customize, adapt, adjust, modify, convert, alter, mould, trim, suit, shape, reshape, tune, repairs, outfitter.

When you tailor something, to the needs of others, you are adjusting what you do to best suit them rather than taking a general approach.

Appeals synonym

The magazine appeals to people with an extensive knowledge of cars, car parts and the car-industry.

If something appeals to you, you find it attractive or interesting. An application (as to a recognized authority) or make a serious.

If you appeal to someone to do something, you make a serious and urgent request to them.
Synonyms as ask, refer, call, request, supplicate.

2. A quality that arouses interest, desire, attraction. Definition of appeal, to make a request for, or mean to ask. “The Prime Minister appealed to young people to use their vote”.

“The United Nations has appealed for help from the International Community”.

Synonyms as attractive, interesting or a favorable response. An appeal is an attempt to raise money  for a charity or for a good cause.

“If you appeal to someone in authority against a decision, you formally ask them to change it.


“The chef had roasted the chicken with some honey”.

Roast. roasted definition: past simple and past participle of roast. to cook food in an oven or over a fire: to heat nuts or coffee over a fire.

Roast definition, to bake (meat or other food) uncovered, especially in an oven.

Synonyms as cook (food, especially meat) by prolonged exposure to heat in an oven or over a fire.

synonyms:cook, bake, grill; spit-roast, pot-roast; broil. “potatoes roasted in olive oil”

(of food) cooked by prolonged exposure to heat in an oven or over a fire. “roasted chestnuts”

(of a foodstuff, metal ore, or other substance) processed by being subjected to intense heat.
“roasted barley”

What is the difference between roast and bake?

If you’re cooking food that has a solid structure — like any type of meat or vegetables (no matter the temperature of the oven, you’ll roast it).

If you’re cooking food that doesn’t already have a solid structure, but will after it’s cooked — like muffins, cake, bread, and casseroles (the proper method is baking).

simple present form of be

The simple present is a verb tense with two main uses. We use the simple present tense when an action is happening right now, or when it happens regularly (or unceasingly, which is why it’s sometimes called present indefinite).

The simple present tense is one of several forms of present tense in English. It is used to describe habits, unchanging situations.


Sentence source: Please be careful not to break this vase.

A vase is a jar, usually made of glass or pottery, used for holding cut flowers or as an ornament.

Vase definition, a vessel, as of glass, porcelain, earthenware, or metal.

It can be made from a number of materials, such as ceramics , glass, non-rusting metals, such as aluminium, brass, bronze or stainless steel. Even wood has been used to make vases.

The tall container you put flowers in is a vase. Thanks for the enormous bouquet of daisies.

vase meaning, definition, what is vase: a container used to put flowers in.

A vase is a jar, usually made of glass or pottery, used for holding cut flowers or as an ornament.

Definition of vase – a decorative container without handles, typically made of glass or China.

Definition of vase. : a usually round vessel of greater depth than width used chiefly as an ornament or for holding flowers.

A decorative container without handles, typically made of glass or china and used as an ornament or for displaying cut flowers.


to accept something to be true without question or proof. Definition of assume – suppose to be the case, without proof, take or begin to have (power or .

Assume definition: If you assume that something is true , you imagine that it is true, sometimes wrongly.

take to be the case or to be true; accept without verification or proof. Synonyms: presuppose. take for granted. anticipate.

Another word for assume: presume, think, believe, expect, accept.

Worthy sentence

‘Having or showing a composed for serious manner that is worthy of respect’

If a person or thing is worthy of something, they deserve  it because they have the qualities or abilities required.

A worthy person or thing is approved of by most people in society and considered to be morally respectable or correct.

Synonyms: praiseworthy, good, excellent, deserving, having worth, value or merit. I like them, and they are worthy winners”.

You can refer to worthy people as worthies. “A group of local worthies began to plan their own exhibition”.

simple future tense exercises

The simple future tense of the verbs formula is start will or shall and root verbs. Page 284 A Practical Grammar Workbook.

1. Anis will look after the flower plants while I am away. I will give the key of the gate to her.

2. Azlan will wash the car for me. He will polish it too.

3. Your friends will not come unless they are invited. Brother Ali will prepare the invitation cards for you.

4. Please ask her to pass up her work on time or Puan Nor Bi will punish her. I will inform others to do so, too.

5. All of us will meet Mr Gopal at the library tomorrow. He will discuss with us what to prepare for the annual class party.

6. My father will not attend the Prize Giving Ceremony because he is still in London. However, I will make sure that my mother will not disappoint me.

7. Those students will sit for their PMR this year. They will have to study hard in order to get excellent results.

8. There are a number of interesting story books to read. I will get them for you tomorrow. Besides reading the stories you will improve your language too.

9. Do not eat too much. It will make you fat. You will not feel comfortable if you are fat.

10. I will play with my friends till my father comes and fetches me. Then we will go shopping together.

Past perfect tense yet

Examples of the position of yet in the sentences: She hadn’t……. yet or, We hadn’t….. yet. Page 276, SIMPLE ENGLISH (Nor Bi Abd Rahman) part 3, unit 7 past perfect tense.

1. I hadn’t paid my school fees yet.
2. The ladies hadn’t prepared our lunch yet.
3. The taxi hadn’t arrived yet.
4. One of the guests hadn’t eaten yet.
5. The tailor hadn’t sewn my blouse yet.
6. The durians hadn’t ripen yet.
7. The meeting hadn’t finished yet.
8. She hadn’t washed her hands yet.
9. The test hadn’t started yet.
10. The players hadn’t started playing yet.

The appropriate sentences for the past perfect tense yet.

1. The clothes had not dried up yet.
2. Kamal hadn’t caught any fish yet.
3. Had Ali and Aziz run yet?
4. Had Mazni found her purse yet?
5. The servant had not ironed my shirt yet.
6. It had not stopped ringing yet.
7. Hadn’t the ceiling stopped leaking yet?
8. All of us hadn’t cut our hair yet.
9. The soup hadn’t boiled yet.
10. Had the aeroplane landed yet?

The past perfect tense yet is start page 276 to 277 SIMPLE ENGLISH, A Practical Grammar Workbook.

Past perfect tense more adverbs

The appropriate adverbs of the past perfect tense. SIMPLE ENGLISH Part 3: Present-Perfect-Continuous Tense, Page 280 The past perfect tense more adverbs.

1. Puan Marina had satisfactorily finished her work.
2. Hadn’t the wicked lady rudely beaten the cat.
3. The brilliant boy had not really answered the question.
4. I had unexpectedly met him at the airport.
5. Zul had accidentally knocked the flower pot on the step.
6. Someone had generously paid the fees for her.
7. Mary hadn’t sung the song correctly.
8. Nobody had really thought about it.
9. Had they done their work nicely?
10. She had willingly helped me to overcome my problems.

To form the past perfect tense you use the past tense of the verb “to have,” which is had, and add it to the past participle of the main verb. For example: subject + had + past participle = past perfect tense.

English Writing Skills AUDIENCE

ALISON English Writing Skills

Module 3: Audience

The audience has a very strong effect on what is written. Writers need to be very clear about who they are writing for, and must tailor their work accordingly.

The audience for whom a piece is being written will determine the language used and the style.

The writing on this map is targeted to a specific audience.

Who might the audience of this map have been?

Any finished piece of writing takes into account the needs of the audience.

In some cases, the writing is accompanied by images or drawings.

Imagine a writer who works for a top car-magazine. The magazine appeals to people with an extensive knowledge of cars, car parts and the car-industry.

Now imagine that the writer is employed by a national newspaper to write an article on the latest brands of cars.

How might the language and style of these two pieces differ?

Think about who the audience is for each piece of writing and how those audiences differ from each other.

Now imagine that the writer uses the money made from these articles to buy a brand new latest model car.

The writer than starts a letter to a friend to tell him about the new purchase.

How might the language in the letter differ from the car magazine article or the article written for the national newspaper?

Think about how the writer changes his style and language for the chosen audience.

To get your message across you must be aware of who will read your writing.

If you don’t, the writing may not do what you want it to.

As well as this, don’t forget that your writing is determined by the message you want to send and your trigger.

Different situations and audiences call for different styles of writing. A political speech differs in tone, language and even presentation to an entry written in someone’s personal diary.

In the same way a journalist and a poet use different techniques and forms to appeal to their readers.

In all cases, the writer must consider who their audience is and then tailor their words to appeal to that audience.

When thinking about your audience begin by asking yourself these two very simple questions:

a) How old is my audience?
b) What is the social background of the audience?

As you write continue to think about your audience. Always remember who you are writing for and this will keep your work fresh and relevant.

It may be helpful to stop at certain times and to review your work in the light of the questions in the animation.


(this text is from

English Writing Skills, module 3: audience.