The source sentence is “The page 273, past perfect tense + the adverbial is arrange the words into appropriate sentences”.

Relating to or functioning as an adverb or adverbial. An adverbial phrase, also known as an adverb phrase is a group of words that functions as an adverb in a sentence.

That is it modifies a verb, adjective, adverb, clause or the sentence as a whole. In grammar, an adverbial is a word (an adverb) or a group of words phrase or/and clause that modifies or more closely defines the sentence or the verb.

We use adverbials of manner to say how something happens or how something is done. It’s can modify a verb, an adjective or a complete sentence.

In the phrase “she smiled cheerfully” the word cheerfully is an adverb and in the sentence “she ran quickly” the adverb quickly modifies the verb ran.


“The farmer had harvested the padi in the field”.

to pick and collect crops, or to collect plants, animals, or fish to eat: In the US, winter wheat is harvested in the early summer.

the time of year when crops are cut and collected from the fields, or the activity of cutting and collecting ..

gather (a crop) as a harvest. “after harvesting, most of the crop is stored in large buildings”

synonyms:gather in, gather, bring in, take in; reap, pick, collect; raregarner, ingather, glean, cull
“once he’s harvested the wheat crop, there are still the beans”


“Father had sprinkled some salt into the basin of water”.

a small quantity or amount of something scattered over an object or surface. “a generous sprinkle of pepper”.

cover (an object or surface) with small drops or particles of a substance.

“I the floor with water” synonyms:dredge, dust, powder “when the cake is cool, sprinkle it with icing sugar”.


The sentence is “The smugglers had been hiding in the cave until the police caught them”.

someone who takes goods or people into or out of a country illegally: a drug/arms/human smuggler.

An increasing number of migrants are turning to smugglers for help.

A person smugglers goods, or drugs. Or to take things or people to or from a place secretly and often illegally.

Passive form of the past perfect tense

The past perfect tense form is made by putting had before the past participle form of the verb. Study the following sentences.

The Formula: is start had been past participle. Page 282 SIMPLE ENGLISH 9.1 fill in the blanks with the correct form of verbs in the brackets.

1. The school building had been painted blue and yellow.
2. Had the patients been treated by the doctor?
3. All of us had been asked to show our passport to the Immigration Officer.
4. The mushroom had been cooked and served to the guests.
5. The paintings had been advertised during the exhibition held by the Art Club of our school.
6. I had been selected to be the Chairman of the English Language Society. It was a challenging experience.
7. The chicken had already been fed by my grandmother.
8. The strawberries had been plucked fresh from the orchard and sold in the market.
9. The elephant had been spotted somewhere at the foot of the nearby hill.
10. The bushes had been trimmed by the school gardener so that they would not grow bigger.
11. Had you been caught swimming in the nearby pool?
12. Had the ladies been asked to prepare lunch for us?
13. Had your sister been selected to take part in the competition?
14. Had the torn shirt been sewed?
15. Had we been asked to prepare for it.

Both sentences given above are in the active voice. When we change them into the passive, the object of the active verb becomes the subject of the passive verb.

simple future tense definition

Simple Future Tense

Unit 10 page 283 study and understand how the verbs in the simple future tense are used as following.

1. Past tense (yesterday)
a) Aishah cut the cake into halves.
b) She plucked the rose.
c) I read a magazine

2. Past continuous tense (now)
a) Aishah is cutting the cake.
b) She is plucking the rose.
c) I am reading a story book.

3. Future tense (tomorrow)
a) Aishah will cut the cake into halves.
b) She will pluck the rose.
c) I will read about the school rules.

In English grammar, the simple future is a form of the verb that refers to an action or event that has not yet begun.

Simple Future (Future Indefinite) Tense. The simple future tense is used when an action is promised/thought to occur in the future.

The simple future is also used to make a prediction or to show ability, intention, or determination.

Also called the future simple. The simple future refers to a time later than now, and expresses facts or certainty.

past perfect tense ever never

Past perfect tense ever

Appropriate sentences of the past perfect tense ever. Page 278 and 279.

1. Had she ever taken your money?
2. Had we ever boarded the plain together?
3. Had the lady ever worked here?
4. Had you ever cared for your sister?
5. Had the elephant ever come to the village?
6. Had the volcanoe ever erupted?
7. Had the old woman ever spoken to you?
8. Had you ever washed your car?
9. Had the men ever threatened you?
10. Had the child ever lost her way home?

The past perfect tense for ever is just to used  asking questions because it is start the sentences by had.


Puan Maznah had claimed the lost bag“.

to say that something is true or is a fact, although you cannot prove it and other people might not believe it:

The company claims that it is not responsible for the pollution in the river.

# They claim there’s not enough evidence it’s him.

# She would claim to be a research scientist.

# That claim is simply not true.

# In fact she had avoided – even pushed away those who might want to claim close friendship.

2. a written request to an organization to pay you a sum of money which you believe it owes you: After the storm, dozens of claims were filed to collect crop insurance.

formally request or demand; say that one owns or has earned (something).

When you express your right to something, you’re making a claim to it, like telling your sister, “This bowl of cereal is mine.”

A claim is also a statement saying that you have a right to something: They asserted their claim to citizenship.


“The watchman had locked the front gate”.

a man employed to look after an empty building, especially at night. “a night watchman”

synonyms:security guard, security man, guard, doorman; caretaker, superintendent, warden.

a person who keeps guard over a building at night, to protect it from fire, vandals, or thieves. (formerly) a person who guards or patrols the streets at night.

“a night watchman”  a man employed to look after an empty building, especially at night.