Dam

a barrier constructed to hold back water and raise its level, forming a reservoir used to generate electricity or as a water supply. “the dam burst after torrential rain”

build a dam across (a river or lake).
“the river was dammed to form Lake Powell”

Supposed

supposed. If you are supposed to do something, it means that you’d better get to it.

If you’re supposed to go to your grandma’s house for dinner, then your grandmother expects you.

Something that’s required is supposed, and something that’s assumed to be true

to be expected to do something. To be supposed to means an obligation.

It is something that you should do, or something that another person expects you to do.

Don’t forget to use the verb be in front of supposed to. Sally is supposed to meet her friend tonight.

Punctual

Happening or doing something at the agreed or proper time. “he’s the sort of man who’s always punctual”.

He was as punctual as midnight.
He was a faithful friend and remarkable for his punctual attendance.

Definition of punctual – happening or doing something at the agreed or proper time.

Punctual definition: If you are punctual , you do something or arrive somewhere at the right time.

What is punctuation example?
There are fifteen basic punctuation marks in English grammar.

These include the period, comma, exclamation point, question mark, colon, semicolon, bullet point, dash, hyphen, parenthesis, bracket, brace, ellipsis, quotation mark, and apostrophe.

Punctuation

  • Period [.] Use a period to show the end of a sentence. …
  • Question Mark [?] Use a question mark at the end of a sentence to show a direct question. …
  • Exclamation Mark [!] Use an exclamation mark at the end of a sentence to show surprise or excitement. …
  • Comma [,] …
  • Apostrophe [‘] …
  • Quotation Marks [“] …
  • Colon [:] …
  • Semicolon [;]

Introductive writing

Since the earliest times humans have wanted to communicate their thoughts, ideas, views, opinions, histories and visions.

Humans seem to have always had a need or desire to write. Egyptians wrote of battles, business, biographies and love in hieroglyphics 6000 years ago.

Writing makes our thoughts or views more permanent. If words are spoken they may be lost. If they are written they can be read at any time by anyone.

Indigenous people in Australia, Africa and the Americas often wrote their histories and stories pictorially.

Some peoples however, such as the Celtic Druids, distrusted writing and preferred to use oral traditions.

The Bible, Koran, Torah and the writings of Confucius and Buddha are among the earliest writings on spirituality, morality and religion.

The Book of Kells, written around the year 800 AD, is one of the most beautifully illuminated manuscripts in the world.

There are many different styles of writing and many different ways to write.

Sometimes people write for themselves, a very private audience, and at other times the audience is the whole world.

The form of writing you use is influenced by your audience.

Different forms of writing

People write in a variety of styles. Think about writing that appears in a newspaper, in a poem or in a novel.

The writing differs in many ways. It varies in structure, language and complexity. The following activities require you to think about different writing styles.

Firstly, try to identify the different styles of writing in the following table. Then try the following animation.

“…what we need to ascertain is the viability of supply and the possibility of alternative sources of…”

“…as the mountain lilies danced the flamenco to the standing ovation of the grass…”

“…watching Linford Christie win the 100 metres was amazing. I wish you’d been there too…”

“…Next the flange needs to be carefully placed against the flat section of the upper box…”

“…the Minister for Sport and Recreation stated, “this is the greatest event”…”

“…The moon could be seen glinting through the wet trees as Gwen and Louis crawled toward the safety of their car and away from the…”

“…we suggest that the UK government looks carefully toward the future. Every year, an area of forest the size of Scotland is being destroyed by…”

Which words in these samples tell us that the writing is not what it has been labelled? In each case there may be more than one word.

There are many different forms of writing and reasons for writing.

Use the following activity to explore different types of writing and to explore what it is that makes a writer.

Why do writers write

Triggers for writing, Why do writers write?

There is no one reason why people write. Everyone has a different trigger.

It’s too easy to say that so-and-so writes because they are good at English.

Not everybody who’s good at English is a writer. One thing is certain, however; everyone who writes has a trigger.

A reporter writes to inform the public about news; they want to tell people about important, and sometimes unimportant, events.

They may have been brought up in a home where news was discussed.

Some people write because they have a message that they want the world to know about.

Travellers write in journals and diaries to remind them of where they have been and what they’ve seen.

Some people have wonderful imaginations and create swirling images for others to escape into.
Some people write to make others laugh.

What Makes You Write? Take a few minutes to think about what motivates you to write.

It could be to explain an idea, or perhaps to entertain, or to seek action.

You may want to write your ideas down on paper.
Within a newspaper there are a number of different styles of writing.

As well as articles written by journalists you will find advertisements and letters to the editor.

Each of these sections is aimed at a different audience and may be triggered by various motives.

Writing skills

Sometimes it can be difficult to begin writing. Often the best solution is simply that.

Just begin. Put some words on the page; any words.

Write down anything that comes to mind. Don’t forget that you can always rewrite what you have written.

Even the world’s most famous writers have times where they struggle over the words they are putting on paper.

Of course sometimes you will find that your writing flows easily and naturally.

Enjoy this experience but don’t expect that writing will always come to you so spontaneously.

Remember that good writers work very hard at their chosen craft and that all new skills require practice.

Writing is a more considered, deliberate form of expression compared to speech which is often more spontaneous.

It is an opportunity to share your experience with the world. A chance to share your unique viewpoint.

Remember that no one else has your experience; no one else knows what it is like to be you.

No one else can write like you. Also remember that there are stories to tell that only you can tell.

If you are having difficulty writing you might like to ask yourself the questions that follow. These can be used as triggers or prompts for your work.

By answering any of the questions below you will be joining the ranks of some of literature’s finest writers and philosophers who have explored these ideas in depth.

Triggers writing

Many of the world’s most influential people such as Nelson Mandela have used their own experiences as triggers for writing.

If I had one message only to tell the world what would it be?

When have I felt happiest? Saddest? Angriest?

Who has made me feel happiest? Saddest? Angriest?

What is the funniest thing that has ever happened to me?

Who are my heroes. Why?

Who would I least like to be? Why?

If I could be any person or thing, who or what would it be?

If I could create an ideal world what would it be like?

Inspiration for writing can come from many sources. And different writers will use the same source of inspiration in various ways.

Watch the video below and then choose from the different essay topics that follow. Some will appeal to you more than others.

You might choose to write a science fiction essay or an imaginative essay.

Perhaps you feel strongly about the issue presented and would prefer to write in a more serious way about the topic.

Imagine that you are living in India and your homeland is in danger of being swamped by a rising sea. What would life be like for you at this time?

Write about how we, as individuals, can save our planet from environmental disaster.

Write a letter to a person (who is the same age as you) who lives in India or Germany asking them to come up with suggestions on what youth can do to avoid environmental catastrophes.

Write a letter to a senator expressing your concern over rising sea levels.

Write a letter to a friend about your fears about the state of planet earth.

Imagine that you are an alien being scheming to destroy the earth. How would you use water as a tool to destroy the planet?

Imagine that you are a submarine captain exploring the state of the seas.

While you are doing so, you come across the lost city of Atlantis. Describe the city.

Triggers for writing

People provide endless inspiration for writing. When you read the newspaper or watch the evening news you might be struck by an image of a person or a group of people.

These images can be used as triggers for writing. It is interesting to use a photo of a person and to create a story about that person.

Consider what their life might be like. What an amazing sense of perspective is achieved if you can put yourself in the shoes of a person whose life is totally different to your own.

Events and situations are perhaps the most available sources of inspiration for writers.

Memories or photos of significant events in life, when used as triggers for writing, can be sources for very insightful reflective writing.

Nature is another powerful source of inspiration for writers. Think about the wonders found in nature.

Places that people flock to in their thousands. Why do people flock to places like Mount Everest? What is the great attraction?

If you could, would you like to see natural wonders like the Grand Canyon, the Himalayan mountains or the magnificent creatures of the African deserts?

The beauty of nature also lies much closer to home. Take a leaf from the closest tree, look carefully, and there you have the trigger for a piece of descriptive writing.